NuoDB is a so-called "NewSQL" database, developed by the company of the same name. A NewSQL database is, in effect, a database that looks relational and leverages SQL but isn't necessarily relational under the covers. In theory, NewSQL databases could be used for any task currently supported by relational databases but, in practice, developers of these products have stuck to OLTP (on-line transaction processing) environments in the first instance. NuoDB is no exception in this regard.
It might therefore appear that there are two discussions to be had: firstly, why might you choose to use any NewSQL database and, secondly, why you might then select NuoDB rather than another NewSQL database. However, while NewSQL databases tend to be less expensive, better performing and easier to manage than conventional relational databases they tend to achieve these benefits in rather different ways and with very different architectures which means that different NewSQL databases are often better suited to different types of use cases. In this paper we will therefore restrict ourselves to a discussion of NuoDB specifically rather than elaborate on NewSQL databases more generally.